The Museum of the History of Medicine was founded in 1937 by the professor Adalberto Pazzini in the Institute of Hygiene and was transferred in 1965 to its current location in the Institute of the History of Medicine. The evolution of medicine and pharmacology is documented from prehistory to the past century, from the shamans to Hypocrites, from Pasteur to Spallanzani. The collection consists both of originals and copies and was formed through private legacies and donations, such as the Gorga and the Pazzini Collections, and of objects coming from the Egyptian Museum and the Oriental Institute in Naples. The objects include a precious collection of Medieval apothecary vases, small Egyptian ointment vases for mummification, various surgical instruments, portable apothecaries, ex-voto (offerings) and talismans. Some interiors are reconstructed, such as a seventeenth century apothecary and the laboratory of the alchemist.